A geographic distribution database of the cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

Última versión Publicado por Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) en Jun 4, 2018 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)

Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Whitefly populations are regulated mainly by Hymenopteran parasitoids. Despite their importance, neither the distribution of cassava whiteflies, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and E. bellottii for A. socialis; and E. sophia for B. tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

Registros

Los datos en este registros biológicos recurso han sido publicados como Archivo Darwin Core(DwC-A), el cual es un formato estándar para compartir datos de biodiversidad como un conjunto de una o más tablas de datos. La tabla de datos del core contiene 1,311 registros.

Este IPT archiva los datos, sirviendo así como repositorio de datos. Los datos y metadatos están disponibles para descargar en la sección de descargas. La tabla de versiones muestra otras versiones del recurso que se han hecho accesibles al público y permite el seguimiento de los cambios hechos al recurso en el tiempo.

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Versiones

La siguiente tabla muestra sólo las versiones publicadas del recurso que son de acceso público.

¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Vásquez-Ordóñez, A. A., Hazzi, N., Escobar-Prieto, J. D., Paz-Jojoa, D., Parsa, S. (2015) A geographic distribution database of the cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera), 1311 records, On line, , published on 05/15/2015.

Derechos

Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: c6f4c2de-3b71-4ebd-9c98-c21537548f07.  Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) publica este recurso, y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por Colombian Biodiversity Information System.

Palabras Clave

Cassava whiteflies; whitefly parasitoids; whitefly hyperparasitoids; CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC).; Occurrence; Specimen; VALLE_DEL_CAUCA

Contactos

¿Quién creó el recurso?:

Aymer Andrés Vásquez Ordóñez
Research Assistant
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT Km 17 Recta Cali-Palmira 6713 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 (2) 4450000
http://ciat.cgiar.org/

¿Quién puede resolver dudas acerca del recurso?:

Aymer Andrés Vásquez Ordóñez
Research Assistant
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT Km 17 Recta Cali-Palmira 6713 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 (2) 4450000
http://ciat.cgiar.org/

¿Quién documentó los metadatos?:

Aymer Andrés Vásquez Ordóñez
Research Assistant
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT Km 17 Recta Cali-Palmira 6713 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 (2) 4450000
http://ciat.cgiar.org/

¿Quién más está asociado con el recurso?:

Investigador Principal
Aymer Andrés Vásquez Ordóñez
Research Assistant
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT Km 17 Recta Cali-Palmira 6713 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 (2) 4450000
http://ciat.cgiar.org/
Autor
Nicolas Hazzi
Estudiante de Pregrado
Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Biología, Sección Entomología Calle 13 # 100-00 25360 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 2 3212100
http://www.univalle.edu.co/
Autor
Soroush Parsa
Researcher
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT Km 17 Recta Cali-Palmira 6713 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 (2) 4450000
http://ciat.cgiar.org/
Autor
Juan David Escobar-Prieto
Estudiante de Pregrado
Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Biología, Sección Entomología Calle 13 # 100-00 25360 Cali Valle del Cauca CO +57 2 3212100
http://www.univalle.edu.co/
Autor
Dario Paz-Jojoa
Estudiante de Pregrado
Universidad de Nariño, Departamento de Biologia Clle 18 Cr 50 1175 Pasto Nariño CO +57 2 7311449
http://www.udenar.edu.co/

Cobertura Geográfica

Most of the distribution records belong to South America (Brazil, Colombia Ecuador and Venezuela) and Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). Colombia and Venezuela are the best represented countries, followed by Brazil and Ecuador. There are also seven records of whiteflies from Asia (Lao and Thailand).

Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [-25.389, -89.869], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [17.958, 104.722]

Cobertura Taxonómica

Most records were identified to the species level (whiteflies: 97%; parasitoids and hyperparasitoids: 73%) by expert entomologists. Experts identifying over 20 records were Gregory A. Evans, María del Pilar Hernández, Sueo Nakahara and Louise M. Russell. Whitefly records belong to nine genera and eleven species, whereas parasitoid records belong to eight genera and 14 species. The dataset also includes four records of the genus Signiphora, considered a genus of whitefly hyperparasitoids (Evans 2007b).

Género  Anagyrus,  Aphanogmus,  Eretmocerus,  Euderomphale,  Metaphycus,  Paraleyrodes,  Aleur
Especie  Signiphora aleyrodis Ashmead,  Aleuroctonus vittatus (Dozier),  Aleurodicus dispersus Russell,  Aleurodicus flavus Hempel,  Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar,  Aleurothrixus aepim (Goldi),  Aleurotrachelus sociales Bondar,  Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker,  Amitus macgowni Evans & Castillo,  Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius),  Bemisia tuberculata Bondar,  Encarsia americana (DeBach & Rose),  Encarsia bellotti Evans & Castillo,  Encarsia cubensis Gahan,  Encarsia desantisis Viggiani,  Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani,  Encarsia hispida De Santis,  Encarsia luteola Howard,  Encarsia nigricephala Dozier,  Encarsia pergandiella Howard,  Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd),  Encarsia tabacivora Viggiani,  Tetraleurodes ursorum (Cockerell),  Trialeurodes similis Russell,  Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood),  Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance)

Cobertura Temporal

Fecha Inicial / Fecha Final 1975-01-10 / 2012-03-11

Datos del Proyecto

No hay descripción disponible

Título Management of RTB Critical Pest and Diseases under Changing Climates, through Risk Assessment, Surveillance and Modeling.
Fuentes de Financiación This project was supported by the Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) Research Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Descripción del Área de Estudio Most of the distribution records belong to South America (Brazil, Colombia Ecuador and Venezuela) and Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). Colombia and Venezuela are the best represented countries, followed by Brazil and Ecuador. There are also seven records of whiteflies from Asia (Lao and Thailand).
Descripción del Diseño The purpose of this dataset is to broadly and openly share geographic distribution data for the cassava whitefly complex and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. Prior to this contribution, we found no records of these arthropod species in cassava at the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) data portal (accessed 04/05/2015). To bridge this gap, our paper submits 1,311 distribution records (whiteflies: 841; parasitoids: 466; hyperparasitoids: 4), documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. More than half of these records correspond to specimens preserved at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the whitefly records correspond to Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar and Bemisia tuberculata Bondar. In turn, most parasitoid records belong to Encarsia hispida De Santis, Amitus macgowni Evans & Castillo and E. bellotti Evans & Castillo for A. socialis; and E. sophia (Girault & Dodd) for B. tuberculata. We believe this dataset should be of particular interest to whitefly biologists, cassava entomologists and national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) in tropical countries.

Personas asociadas al proyecto:

Investigador Principal
Soroush Parsa

Métodos de Muestreo

The records in the dataset have been documented in three ways: 1) Records from CIAT’s initial field explorations to document pests in cassava (CIAT 1974, 1985; 0.7% records, between 1975-1989). 2) Records documented during the “Biological Control of Whiteflies by Indigenous Natural Enemies for Major Food Crops in the Neotropics Projects” and participation in “Global Whitefly IPM Project” led by CIAT, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CENIAP), Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), The University of Florida and Corporación Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria (Corpoica) (CIAT 1995, 2002, Bellotti et al. 1996, 1999, 2000, 2005, Bellotti 2001, Arias and Bellotti 2002, CIAT et al. 1998, Castillo 1996, López-Ávila et al. 2001, Hernandez and Bellotti 2002, 2004, Holguín et al. 2002, Trujillo et al. 2004, Herrera et al. 2006, Hernández et al. 2009; 95.7% records, between 1990-2007). 3) Records from other sources; including field inspections and collections conducted during routine farm visits by CIAT personnel, and specimens submitted to CIATARC by fellow institutions and researchers (Adriano Muñoz and Gerardino Perez, pers. comm. November 29, 2014; 2.6% records between 2008-2012). The records resulted from one of two sampling methods. The first method was designed to identify parasitoids associated with dominant whitefly species on farmer’s fields. One middle-canopy leaf infested with whiteflies was collected from each of 40-100 randomly-selected plants per field. A disc of 2.54 cm2 was excised from the leaf lobe with the highest density of whitefly pupae. The single most abundant whitefly species per disc was identified and individuals not belonging to that species were eliminated by puncturing them with a needle. The disc samples were then individually placed in 25-ml glass vials and held for 2-3 days at 24.5+ 4 °C and 70 + 5% relative humidity under laboratory conditions until parasitoids emerged (Bellotti et al. 1999, 2000, Trujillo et al. 2004). The second method corresponds to opportunistic collections during routine farm visits by CIAT personnel, when leaves infested with whitefly pupae would be collected in vials with 70% alcohol and submitted to the CIATARC for their subsequent identification (Herrera et al. 2006). All formally-submitted samples were mounted and are preserved at the CIATARC. Out database does not indicate which sampling method was used for each record.

Área de Estudio Most of the distribution records belong to South America (Brazil, Colombia Ecuador and Venezuela) and Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). Colombia and Venezuela are the best represented countries, followed by Brazil and Ecuador. There are also seven records of whiteflies from Asia (Lao and Thailand).
Control de Calidad Record validation and cleaning was incorporated at several steps of the documentation process, following guideless by Chapman (2005a, b). The scientific names on labels were checked with a taxonomic thesaurus developed by AAV. This thesaurus compiled all known synonyms and spelling variants of the scientific names used for our focal species. We assigned scientific names in accordance to current taxonomy trends (Whiteflies: Evans 2007a; Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids: Woolley 1988, Polaszek et al. 2004, Evans 2007b, Johnson 2007, 2015, Noyes 2014; Plant associated: Tropicos 2014). Geographic coordinates were verified using the “Check Coordinates” function in DIVA-GIS (Hitmans et al. 2001). For this last step, we relied on the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) shape file developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2015), and official shape of administrative division of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela (IBGE 2007, INEC 2011, SIGOT 2011, IVIC 2007).

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. The dataset integrates two data flows: observational records and specimen-based records, identified either to genus or to species. The former were digitized from field diagnostic forms recorded by personnel extensively trained in whiteflies and parasitoids identification. These identifications, however, were likely conducted on site without mounting and preserving samples. Alternatively, these observations may correspond to properly-mounted but lost specimens. In either case, our confidence in the identification of observational records is high to the genus level, but moderate to the species level. On the other hand, the specimen-based records belong to verifiable samples properly-preserved at CIATARC. We followed the guidelines of Martin (1987) and Hodges & Evans (2005) for whitefly slide preparations, and Noyes (1982) for parasitoid and hyperparasitoid preparations. Unique accession numbers were assigned to all records. All biodiversity data available (i.e. specimen, species identification, name of determiner, sex, locality, date, habitat, host, collector and observations) was digitized in a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet adopting the Darwin Core Archive format v1.2 (Wieczorek et al. 2012). We updated locality fields (e.g., district, municipality) using the most current names and classifications of administrative divisions used by each country (e.g. http://www.dane.gov.co/Divipola/ for Colombia, http://www.inec.gob.ec/estadisticas/?option=com_content&view=article&id=80 for Ecuador, etc. [accessed 2014/11/14]). Based on their locality names, we then geocoded the records using Google Maps (https://maps.google.com/), Geolocate (http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/), GeoNames (http://www.geonames.org/) or with georeference indicated in scientific articles (Calderón et al. 1994, Eiszner et al. 1996, Navia Estrada et al. 2006, Cuadros et al. 2011, Gutiérrez R. et al. 2011). GPS coordinates were converted to decimal degrees. The dataset with metadata was uploaded to the Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) of the Colombia node of Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

Datos de la Colección

Nombre de la Colección CIAT Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC).
Identificador de la Colección http://grbio.org/cool/91gv-71p4
Identificador de la Colección Parental CIATARC
Métodos de preservación de los ejemplares Preparación microscópica

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Metadatos Adicionales

Identificadores Alternativos doi:10.15472/5eycqu
c6f4c2de-3b71-4ebd-9c98-c21537548f07
http://ipt.biodiversidad.co/sib/resource?r=ciat_002