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‘‘Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)’’: The ‘‘mota’’ (Calophysus macropterus) Fishery, Molecular Evidence of Commercialization in Colombia and Toxicological Analyses

Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as ‘‘mota’’ or ‘‘piracatinga’’ (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other over-exploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 lg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

Certificado en PDF
Número del certificado1709D7FDF52
Fecha del certificado2020-03-03
Certificado en PDFdescargar (57 KB)
Contacto del recurso
NombreSusana Caballero
PosiciónProfesora asociada
OrganizaciónUniversidad de los Andes
Dirección Cra. 1 #18a 12, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, COLOMBIA, Código postal: 111711
Contactosj.caballero26@uniandes.edu.co Tel: 339 49 99
Página Webhttps://uniandes.edu.co/
Contacto del permiso
NombreYiselle Cano
PosiciónAnalista laboratorio
OrganizaciónUniversidad de los Andes
Dirección Cra. 1 #18a 12, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, COLOMBIA, Código postal: 111711
Contactoyp.cano137@uniandes.edu.co Tel: 339 49 99
Página Webhttps://uniandes.edu.co/
Proveedor de los metadatos
NombreSusana Caballero
PosiciónProfesora asociada
OrganizaciónUniversidad de los Andes
Dirección Cra. 1 #18a 12, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, COLOMBIA, Código postal: 111711
Contactosj.caballero26@uniandes.edu.co Tel: 339 49 99
Página Webhttps://uniandes.edu.co/
Información del Permiso
Autoridad ambientalMinisterio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible
Número del permisoArtículo 252 de la Ley 1753 de 2015
Titular del permisoUniversidad de los Andes
Nit o cédula860.007.386-1
Fecha de emisión2015-06-09
Cobertura Geográfica
DescripciónColombia CO Amazonas Puerto Nariño Río Amazonas Colombia CO Amazonas Leticia Río Amazonas Colombia CO Guainía Inírida Río Orinoco Colombia CO Meta Puerto López Río Meta Colombia CO Putumayo Puerto Asís Río Putumayo Colombia CO Cundinamarca Bogotá Bogotá Colombia CO Cundinamarca Girardot Girardot Colombia CO Tolima Melgar Melgar
Coordenadas-4.218, 4.632 / -74.084, -69.946 (Latitud mínima, máxima / Longitud mínima/máxima)
Cobertura Taxonómica
Descripción Peces identificados a especie
Especie Calophysus macropterus, Pimelodus grosskopfii
Cobertura Temporal
Fecha inicial / Fecha final2010-05-31 / 2010-09-30
Métodos de Muestreo
Descripción del muestreoEighty-six fish specimens were obtained from different sources (fishermen, distributors, and markets) in eight locations in Colombia between June and October 2010. Forty-six of these samples where obtained from ‘‘source’’ localities (a source, defined as places where the fishing activity is done or where fishermen bring their catch to be commercialized), and these samples were morphologically identified using identification guides and species identification was confirmed by taxonomic experts in the field. These specimens were also molecularly identified in order to use them for comparison in further analyses. These specimens were obtained in the Colombian Amazon (Puerto Narin ̃o and Leticia), the Colombian Orinoco (Inirida), Meta Province (Puerto Lo ́pez), and Putumayo Province (Puerto Asís). Forty specimens were obtained from markets in Bogotá, Girardot, and Melgar, where they were sold as ‘‘capaz’’ from the Magdalena River. The latest two cities are located on the Magdalena River, about 98 km southwest from Bogota ́. They all were sold at different prices and all were sold under the name ‘‘capaz.’’ A small tissue sample from each specimen was cut and transferred to 70% ethanol and refrigerated at 4C.
Palabras Clave
Calophysus macropterus; DNA barcoding; total mercury; Colombia; Specimen